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  1. Hierarchical File Systems
  2. Unix Hierarchical File System

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Bat for lashes two suns 320 rar. The following tables compare general and technical information for a number of file systems.

  • 4Features

General information[edit]

File systemCreatorYear of introductionOriginal operating system
DECtapeDEC1964PDP-6 Monitor
OS/3x0 FSIBM1964OS/360
George 2ICT (later ICL)1968George 2
Version 6 Unix file system (V6FS)Bell Labs1972Version 6 Unix
RT-11 file systemDEC1973RT-11
Disk Operating System (GEC DOS)GEC1973Core Operating System
CP/M file systemDigital Research (Gary Kildall)1974CP/M[1][2]
GEC DOS filing system extendedGEC1977OS4000
FAT (8-bit)Microsoft (Marc McDonald) for NCR1977Microsoft Standalone Disk BASIC-80 (later Microsoft Standalone Disk BASIC-86)
DOS 3.xApple1978Apple DOS
UCSD p-SystemUCSD1978UCSD p-System
CBM DOSCommodore1978Commodore BASIC
Version 7 Unix file system (V7FS)Bell Labs1979Version 7 Unix
FAT12Seattle Computer Products (Tim Paterson)1980QDOS/86-DOS (later IBM PC DOS 1.0)
ProDOSApple1980Apple SOS (later ProDOS 8)
DFSAcorn Computers Ltd1982Acorn BBC MicroMOS
ADFSAcorn Computers Ltd1983Acorn Electron (later Arthur/RISC OS)
FFSKirk McKusick19834.2BSD
FAT16IBM, Microsoft1984PC DOS 3.0, MS-DOS 3.0
MFSApple1984System 1
Elektronika BK tape formatNPO 'Scientific centre' (now Sitronics)1985Vilnius Basic, BK monitor program
HFSApple1985System 2.1
Amiga OFS[1]Metacomco for Commodore1985Amiga OS
GEMDOSDigital Research1985Atari TOS
NWFSNovell1985NetWare 286
High SierraEcma International1986MSCDEX for MS-DOS 3.1/3.2[3]
FAT16BCompaq1987Compaq MS-DOS 3.31
Minix V1 FSAndrew S. Tanenbaum1987MINIX 1.0
Amiga FFSCommodore1988Amiga OS 1.3
ISO 9660:1988Ecma International, ISO1988MS-DOS, 'classic' Mac OS, and AmigaOS
HPFSIBM & Microsoft1989OS/2 1.2
Rock RidgeIEEEc. 1990Unix
extRémy Card1992Linux
AdvFSDEC1993[4]Digital Unix
NTFSMicrosoft (Gary Kimura, Tom Miller)1993Windows NT 3.1
LFSMargo Seltzer1993Berkeley Sprite
ext2Rémy Card1993Linux, Hurd
XiafsQ. Frank Xia1993Linux
UFS1Kirk McKusick19944.4BSD
HFSIBM1994MVS/ESA (now z/OS)
FAT16XMicrosoft1995MS-DOS 7.0 / Windows 95
Joliet ('CDFS')Microsoft1995Microsoft Windows, Linux, 'classic' Mac OS, and FreeBSD
FAT32, FAT32XMicrosoft1996MS-DOS 7.10 / Windows 95 OSR2[b]
QFSSun Microsystems1996Solaris
Be File SystemBe Inc. (D. Giampaolo, Cyril Meurillon)1996BeOS
Minix V2 FSAndrew S. Tanenbaum1997MINIX 2.0
HFS PlusApple1998Mac OS 8.1
NSSNovell1998NetWare 5
PolyServe File System (PSFS)PolyServe1998Windows, Linux
ODS-5DEC1998OpenVMS 7.2
WAFLNetApp1998Data ONTAP
ext3Stephen Tweedie1999Linux
ISO 9660:1999Ecma International, ISO1999Microsoft Windows, Linux, 'classic' Mac OS, FreeBSD, and AmigaOS
JFSIBM1999OS/2 Warp Server for e-business
GFSSistina (Red Hat)2000Linux
zFSIBM2001z/OS (backported to OS/390)
UFS2Kirk McKusick2002FreeBSD 5.0
OCFSOracle Corporation2002Linux
SquashFSPhillip Lougher, Robert Lougher2002Linux
VMFS2VMware2002VMware ESX Server 2.0
LustreCluster File Systems[5]2002Linux
FossilBell Labs2003Plan 9 version 4
Google File SystemGoogle2003Linux
ZFSSun Microsystems2004Solaris
Non-Volatile File SystemPalm, Inc.2004Palm OS Garnet
BeeGFSFraunhofer/ ThinkParQ2005Linux, Windows via Samba
GlusterFSGluster Inc.2005Linux
Minix V3 FSAndrew S. Tanenbaum2005MINIX 3
OCFS2Oracle Corporation2005Linux
VMFS3VMware2005VMware ESX Server 3.0
GFS2Red Hat2006Linux
exFATMicrosoft2006Windows CE 6.0
BtrfsOracle Corporation2007Linux
JXFSHyperion Entertainment2008AmigaOS 4.1
HAMMERMatthew Dillon2008DragonFly BSD 2.0
LSFSStarWind Software2009Linux, FreeBSD, Windows
CASLNimble Storage2010Linux
OrangeFSOmnibond and others2011Linux
VMFS5VMware2011vSphere 5.0+
CHFSUniversity of Szeged2011NetBSD 6.0+
ReFSMicrosoft2012Windows Server 2012
F2FSSamsung Electronics2012Linux
bcachefsKent Overstreet2015Linux
APFSApple2016macOS High Sierra, iOS 10.3
NOVAUC, San Diego2017Linux
HAMMER2Matthew Dillon[6]2017DragonFly BSD 5.0


File systemMaximum filename lengthAllowable characters in directory entries[c]Maximum pathname lengthMaximum file sizeMaximum volume size[d]Max number of files
BeeGFS255 bytesAny byte except NUL[e]No limit defined[f]16 EiB16 EiB?
CP/M file system8.3ASCII except for < > . , ; : = ? * [ ]No directory hierarchy (but accessibility of files depends on user areas via USER command since CP/M 2.2)32 MiB512 MiB?
IBM SFS8.8??Non-hierarchical[7]??
DECtape6.3A–Z, 0–9DTxN:FILNAM.EXT = 15369,280 bytes (577 * 640)369,920 bytes (578 * 640)?
Elektronika BK tape format16 bytes?No directory hierarchy64 KiBNot limited. Approx. 800KB (one side) for 90 min cassette?
MicroDOS file system14 bytes??16 MiB32 MiB?
Level-D6.3A–Z, 0–9DEVICE:FILNAM.EXT[PROJCT,PROGRM] = 7 + 10 + 15 = 32; + 5*7 for SFDs = 6734,359,738,368 words (2**35-1); 206,158,430,208 SIXBIT bytesApprox 12 GB (64 * 178 MB)?
RT-116.3A–Z, 0–9, $0 (no directory hierarchy)33,554,432 bytes (65536 * 512)33,554,432 bytes?
Version 6 Unix file system (V6FS)14 bytesAny byte except NUL and /[e]No limit defined[f]16 MiB[g]32 MiB?
Disk Operating System (GEC DOS)???? at least 131,072 bytes??
GEC DOS filing system extended8 bytesA–Z, 0–9. Period was directory separator? No limit defined (workaround for OS limit)? at least 131,072 bytes??
CBM DOS16 bytesAny byte except NUL0 (no directory hierarchy)16 MiB16 MiB?
Version 7 Unix file system (V7FS)14 bytesAny byte except NUL or /[e]No limit defined[f]1 GiB[h]2 TiB?
exFAT255 UTF-16 characters?32,760 Unicode characters with each path component no more than 255 characters[8]16 EiB[8]64 ZiB (276 bytes)?
FAT (8-bit)6.3 (binary files) / 9 characters (ASCII files)ASCII (0x00 and 0xFF not allowed in first character)No directory hierarchy???
FAT12/FAT168.3 (255 UCS-2 characters with LFN)[i]SFN: OEM A-Z, 0-9, ! # $ % & ' ( ) - @ ^ _ ` { } ~, 0x80-0xFF, 0x20. LFN: Unicode except NUL, ' * / : < > ? [c][e]No limit defined[f]32 MiB (4 GiB)[j]1 MiB to 32 MiB?
FAT16B/FAT16X8.3 (255 UCS-2 characters with LFN)[i]SFN: OEM A-Z, 0-9, ! # $ % & ' ( ) - @ ^ _ ` { } ~, 0x80-0xFF, 0x20. LFN: Unicode except NUL, ' * / : < > ? [c][i][e]No limit defined[f]2 (4) GiB[j]16 MiB to 2 (4) GiB?
FAT32/FAT32X8.3 (255 UCS-2 characters with LFN)[i]SFN: OEM A-Z, 0-9, ! # $ % & ' ( ) - @ ^ _ ` { } ~, 0x80-0xFF, 0x20. LFN: Unicode except NUL, ' * / : < > ? [c][i][e]32,760 Unicode characters with each path component no more than 255 characters[8]4 GiB[8]512 MiB to 16 TiB[k]?
FATX42 bytes[i]ASCII. Unicode not permitted.No limit defined[f]2 GiB16 MiB to 2 GiB?
GEMDOS8.3A-Z, a-z, 0-9 ! @ # $ % ^ & ( ) + - = ~ ` ; ' ' , < > [ ] ( ) _[10]????
APFS255 UTF-8 charactersUnicode 9.0 encoded in UTF-8[11]?8 EiB?263[12]
F2FS255 bytesAny byte except NUL, /[e]No limit defined[f]3.94 TiB16 TiB?
MFS255 bytesAny byte except :No path (flat filesystem)256 MiB256 MiB?
HFS31 bytesAny byte except :Unlimited2 GiB2 TiB?
HPFS255 bytesAny byte except NUL[l]No limit defined[f]2 GiB2 TiB[m]?
NTFS255 charactersIn Win32 namespace: any UTF-16 code unit (case-insensitive) except /:*'?<> as well as NUL

Abc malayalam movie free download. In POSIX namespace: any UTF-16 code unit (case-sensitive) except / as well as NUL[13]

32,767 Unicode characters with each path component (directory or filename) up to 255 characters long[f]16 EiB[n]16 EiB[n]?
ReFS255 UTF-16 characters[14]Any Unicode except NUL, /[14]32,767 Unicode characters with each path component (directory or filename) up to 255 characters long[14]16 EiB[14][15]1 YiB[14]?
HFS Plus255 UTF-16 characters[o]Any valid Unicode[e][p]Unlimitedslightly less than 8 EiBslightly less than 8 EiB[16][17]?
FFS255 bytesAny byte except NUL[e]No limit defined[f]4 GiB256 TiB?
HAMMER255 bytes[18]Any byte except NUL[e]??1 EiB[19]?
UFS1255 bytesAny byte except NUL[e]No limit defined[f]16 GiB to 256 TiB16 EiBSubdirectory per directory is 32,767[20]
UFS2255 bytesAny byte except NUL[e]No limit defined[f]512 GiB to 32 PiB512 ZiB[21] (279 bytes)Subdirectory per directory is 32,767[20]
ext255 bytesAny byte except NUL[e]No limit defined[f]2 GiB2 GiB?
Xiafs248 bytesAny byte except NUL[e]No limit defined[f]64 MiB2 GiB?
ext2255 bytesAny byte except NUL, /[e]No limit defined[f]16 GiB to 2 TiB[d]2 TiB to 32 TiB?
ext3255 bytesAny byte except NUL, /[e]No limit defined[f]16 GiB to 2 TiB[d]2 TiB to 32 TiB?
ext4255 bytes[22]Any byte except NUL, /[e]No limit defined[f]16 GiB to 16 TiB[d][23]1 EiB232
NOVA255 bytesAny byte except NUL, /[e]No limit defined[f]16 EiB16 EiB?
Lustre255 bytesAny byte except NUL[e]No limit defined[f]16 EiB on ZFS16 EiB?
GPFS255 UTF-8 codepointsAny byte except NUL[e]No limit defined[f]No limit found299 bytes (2 PiB tested)?
GFS255 bytesAny byte except NUL[e]No limit defined[f]2 TiB to 8 EiB[q]2 TiB to 8 EiB[q]?
NILFS255 bytesAny byte except NUL[e]No limit defined[f]8 EiB8 EiB?
ReiserFS4,032 bytes/255 charactersAny byte except NUL or '/'[e]No limit defined[f]8 TiB[r] (v3.6), 4 GiB (v3.5)16 TiB?
Reiser43,976 bytesAny byte except / and NULNo limit defined[f]8 TiB on x86??
OCFS255 bytesAny byte except NUL[e]No limit defined[f]8 TiB8 TiB?
OCFS2255 bytesAny byte except NUL[e]No limit defined[f]4 PiB4 PiB?
XFS255 bytes[s]Any byte except NUL[e]No limit defined[f]8 EiB[t]8 EiB[t]?
JFS1255 bytesAny byte except NUL[e]No limit defined[f]8 EiB512 TiB to 4 PiB?
JFS255 bytesAny Unicode except NULNo limit defined[f]4 PiB32 PiB?
QFS255 bytesAny byte except NUL[e]No limit defined[f]16 EiB[u]4 PiB[u]?
BFS255 bytesAny byte except NUL[e]No limit defined[f]12,288 bytes to 260 GiB[v]256 PiB to 2 EiB?
AdvFS255 charactersAny byte except NUL[e]No limit defined[f]16 TiB16 TiB?
NSS256 charactersDepends on namespace used[w]Only limited by client8 TiB8 TiB?
NWFS80 bytes[x]Depends on namespace used[w]No limit defined[f]4 GiB1 TiB?
ODS-5236 bytes[y]?4,096 bytes[z]1 TiB1 TiB?
VxFS255 bytesAny byte except NUL[e]No limit defined[f]16 EiB??
UDF255 bytesAny Unicode except NUL1,023 bytes[aa]16 EiB512 MiB to 16 TiB?
ZFS255 bytesAny Unicode except NULNo limit defined[f]16 EiB256 ZiB (278 bytes)2128
Btrfs255 bytesAny byte except '/' and NULNo limit defined16 EiB16 EiB264
Minix V1 FS14 or 30 bytes, set at filesystem creation timeAny byte except NUL[e]No limit defined[f]256.5 MiB[ab]64 MiB?
Minix V2 FS14 or 30 bytes, set at filesystem creation timeAny byte except NUL[e]No limit defined[f]2 GiB[ab]1 GiB?
Minix V3 FS60 bytesAny byte except NUL[e]No limit defined[f]2 GiB4 GiB?
VMFS2128Any byte except NUL or /[e]2,0484 TiB[ac]64 TiB?
VMFS3128Any byte except NUL or /[e]2,0482 TiB[ac]64 TiB?
ISO 9660:1988Level 1: 8.3,
Level 2 & 3: ~ 180
Depends on Level[ad]~ 180 bytes?4 GiB (Level 1 & 2) to 8 TiB (Level 3)[ae]8 TiB[af]?
Joliet ('CDFS')64 Unicode charactersAll UCS-2 code except *, /, , :, ;, and ?[25]?same as ISO 9660:1988same as ISO 9660:1988?
Rock Ridge255 bytesAny byte except NUL or /[e]No limit defined[f]same as ISO 9660:1988same as ISO 9660:1988?
UniFSNo limit defined (depends on client)?No limit defined (depends on client)Available cache space at time of write (depends on platform)No limit definedNo limit defined
ISO 9660:1999??????
High Sierra Format??????
SquashFS??No limit defined16 EiB16 EiB?
File systemMaximum filename lengthAllowable characters in directory entries[c]Maximum pathname lengthMaximum file sizeMaximum volume size[d]Max number of files


File systemStores file ownerPOSIX file permissionsCreation timestampsLast access/ read timestampsLast metadata change timestampsLast archive timestampsAccess control listsSecurity/ MAC labelsExtended attributes/ Alternate data streams/ forksChecksum/ ECC
CP/M file systemNoNoYes[ag]NoNoNoNoNoNoNo
Elektronika BK tape formatNoNoNoNoNoNoNoNoNoYes
RT-11[27]NoNoYes (date only)NoNoNoNoNoNoYes
Version 6 Unix file system (V6FS)[28]YesYesNoYesNoNoNoNoNoNo
Version 7 Unix file system (V7FS)[29]YesYesNoYesNoNoNoNoNoNo
HFS PlusYesYesYesYesYesYesYes?YesNo
Minix V1YesYesNoNoNoNoNoNoNoNo
Minix V2YesYesNoYesYesNoNoNoNoNo
Minix V3YesYesNoYesYesNoNoNoNoNo
ISO 9660:1988NoNoYesNoNoNoNoNoNoNo
Rock RidgeYesYesNoYes[bc]YesNoNo[bd]No[be]No[be]No
Joliet ('CDFS')NoNoYesNoNoNoNoNoNoNo
ISO 9660:1999NoNoYesNoNoNoNoNoNoNo
High SierraNoNoYesNoNoNoNoNoNoNo
File systemStores file ownerPOSIX file permissionsCreation timestampsLast access/read timestampsLast metadata change timestampsLast archive timestampsAccess control listsSecurity/ MAC labelsExtended attributes/ Alternate data streams/ forksChecksum/ ECC


File capabilities[edit]

File systemHard linksSymbolic linksBlock journalingMetadata-only journalingCase-sensitiveCase-preservingFile Change LogInternal snapshotting / branchingXIPFilesystem-level encryptionData deduplicationData checksums
Version 6 Unix file system (V6FS)YesNoNoNoYesYesNoNoNoNoNoNo
Version 7 Unix file system (V7FS)YesNo[bf]NoNoYesYesNoNoNoNoNoNo
FAT12NoNoNoPartial (with TFAT12 only)NoPartial (with VFAT LFNs only)NoNoNoPartial (DR-DOS with SECURITY only)NoNo
FAT16 / FAT16B / FAT16XNoNoNoPartial (with TFAT16 only)NoPartial (with VFAT LFNs only)NoNoNoPartial (DR-DOS with SECURITY only)NoNo
FAT32 / FAT32XNoNoNo?Partial (with TFAT32 only)NoPartial (with VFAT LFNs only)NoNoNoNoNoNo
NTFSYesYes[bi]No[bj]Yes[bj] (2000)Yes[bk]YesYesPartial[bl]?YesYes[bm][33]No
HFS PlusYes[34]YesNoYes[bn]Partial[bo]YesYes[bp]NoNoNo[bq]NoNo
ext3YesYesYes (2001) [bv]Yes (2001)YesYesNoNoYesNoNoNo
ext4YesYesYes[bv]YesYesYesNoNoYesYes, experimental [42]NoNo
F2FSYesYesYes[bt]NoYesYesNoNoNoYes, experimental [43]NoNo
XFSYesYesYesYesYes[by]YesYesNo?NoYes, experimental [44]No
JFSYesYesYesYes (1990)Yes[bz]YesNo??No?No
BtrfsYesYesYesYesYesYes?Yes?No, planned, not being developed (Nov, 2015)[48]YesYes
Minix V1YesYesNoNoYesYesNoNoNoNoNoNo
Minix V2YesYesNoNoYesYesNoNoNoNoNoNo
Minix V3YesYesNoNoYesYesNoNoNoNoNoNo
ISO 9660NoNoNoNoNoNoNoNoNoNoNo[ch]No
Rock RidgeYesYesNoNoYesYesNoNoNoNoNo[ch]No
Joliet ('CDFS')NoNoNoNoNoYesNoNoNoNoNo[ch]No
File systemHard linksSymbolic linksBlock journalingMetadata-only journalingCase-sensitiveCase-preservingFile Change LogInternal snapshotting / branchingXIPFilesystem-level encryptionData deduplicationData checksums

Resize capabilities[edit]

File systemHost OSOnline growOffline growOnline shrinkOffline shrink
FAT16 / FAT16B / FAT16Xmisc.NoYes[51]NoYes[51]
FAT32 / FAT32Xmisc.NoYes[51]NoYes[51]
UFS2[60]FreeBSDYes (FreeBSD 10.0-RELEASE or later)YesNoNo

Allocation and layout policies[edit]

File systemTail packingTransparent compressionBlock suballocationAllocate-on-flushExtentsVariable file block size[ci]Sparse filesCopy on writeTrim support
Version 6 Unix file system (V6FS)NoNoNoNoNoNoYes?No
Version 7 Unix file system (V7FS)NoNoNoNoNoNoYes?No
FAT12NoPartial[cj]Partial (only inside of Stacker 3/4 and DriveSpace 3 compressed volumes[63])NoPartial (only inside of compressed volumes)[64]NoPartial (only inside of compressed volumes)[65]NoYes (Linux)
FAT16 / FAT16B / FAT16XNoPartial[cj]Partial (only inside of Stacker 3/4 and DriveSpace 3 compressed volumes[63])NoPartial (only inside of compressed volumes)[64]NoPartial (only inside of compressed volumes)[65]NoYes (Linux)
FAT32 / FAT32XNoNoNoNoNoNoNoNoYes (Linux)
NTFSNoYesPartialNoYesNoYes?Yes (NT 6.1 + newer)
HFS PlusNoNoNoNoYesNoNo?Yes (macOS)
XFSNoNoNoYesYesNoYesYes, on request[69]Yes (Linux)
JFSNoonly in JFS1 on AIX[70]YesNoYesNoYes?Yes (Linux)
BFSNoNoNoNoYesNo??Yes (Haiku)
ZFSNoYesYesYesNoYesYesYesYes (FreeBSD, illumos)
ISO 9660NoNo[ct]NoNoYes[cu]NoNoNoNo
Rock RidgeNoNo[ct]NoNoYes[cu]NoNoNoNo
Joliet ('CDFS')NoNo[ct]NoNoYes[cu]NoNoNoNo
File systemTail packingTransparent compressionBlock suballocationAllocate-on-flushExtentsVariable file block size[ci]Sparse filesCopy on writeTrim support

OS support[edit]

File systemDOSWindows 9xWindows NTLinux'classic' Mac OSmacOSFreeBSDOS/2BeOSMinixSolarisz/OS
APFSNoNoNoPartial (read-only with apfs-fuse[71] or linux-apfs[72])NoYes
(Since macOS Sierra)
Version 6 Unix file system (V6FS)NoNoNo?No?NoNo????
Version 7 Unix file system (V7FS)NoNoNoYesNo?NoNo????
FAT12YesYesYesYesYesYesYesYesYesPartial (via dosdir, dosread, doswrite)Yes?
FAT16 / FAT16B / FAT16XYes (FAT16 from DOS 3.0, FAT16B from DOS 3.31, FAT16X from DOS 7.0)YesYesYesYesYesYesYesYesPartial (via dosdir, dosread, doswrite, not FAT16X)Yes?
FAT32 / FAT32XYes (from DOS 7.10)Yes (from Windows 95 OSR2)Yes (from Windows 2000)YesYes?YesYesYesYesNoYes?
HPFSPartial (with third-party drivers)NoPartial (with NT 3.1 to 4.0 only)Yes??YesYes (from OS/2 1.2)?No??
NTFSPartial (with third-party drivers)Yes (with 3rd-party drivers like Paragon NTFS for Win98, DiskInternals NTFS Reader)YesYes with ntfs-3gNoYes natively read only, write support with Paragon NTFS or ntfs-3gYes with ntfs-3g?Yes with ntfs-3gNoYes with ntfs-3g?
Apple HFSNoNoYes with Paragon HFS+ [73]YesYesYesNo?YesNo?No
Apple HFS PlusNoNoYes with Paragon HFS+ [73]Partial - writing support only to unjournalled FSYes from Mac OS 8.1YesNo?with addonNo?No
UFS1NoNoPartial (with ufs2tools, read only)Partial - read only?YesYesNo??Yes?
UFS2NoNoPartial (with ufs2tools, read only)Yes?YesYesNo????
extNoNoNoYes - until 2.1.20NoNoNoNoNoNoNoNo
XiafsNoNoNoYes - until 2.1.20

Experimental port available to 2.6.32 and later [74][75]

ext2NoNoYes with Paragon ExtFS [76] or partial with Ext2 IFS[77] or ext2fsd[78]YesNoYes with Paragon ExtFS [79] or ext2fsxYesNoYes???
ext3NoNoYes with Paragon ExtFS [76] or partial with Ext2 IFS[77] or ext2fsd[78]YesPartial (read only)[citation needed]Yes with Paragon ExtFS [79] or partial with ext2fsx (journal not updated on writing)Partial (read-only)[80][81]Nowith addon?Yes?
ext4NoNoYes with Paragon ExtFS [76] or partial with Ext2 IFS[77] or ext2fsd[78]Yes?Yes with Paragon ExtFS [79]Partial support in kernel since version 10.1 (read-only)[80][81]Nowith addon???
NILFSNoNo?Yes as an external kernel module??No?????
ReiserFSNoNoNoYes??Partial Read Only?with addon???
Reiser4NoNoNoYes with a kernel patch??No?????
XFSNoNoNoYes??Partial?with addon (read only)???
QFSNoNoNoPartial - client only[83]??NoNo??Yes?
Be File SystemNoNoNoPartial - read-only??NoNoYes???
NSSNoNoNoYes via EVMS[cv]??NoNo????
NWFSPartial (with Novell drivers)NoNo???YesNo????
ZFSNoNoNoYes with FUSE[84] or as an external kernel module[85]?Yes with Read/Write Developer Preview[86]Yes???Yes?
BtrfsNoNoPartial with WinBtrfs[87]Yes????????
ReFSNoNoYes (from Windows Server 2012 and from Windows 8.1)Partial - with Paragon ReFS for Linux????????
ISO 9660YesYesYesYesYesYesYesYesYesYesYesYes
Rock RidgeNoNoNoYesNoYesYesNoNoYesYes?
Joliet ('CDFS')NoYesYesYes?YesYesYesYes?Yes?
SquashFSNoNoPartial (There are ports of unsquashfs and mksquashfs.)YesNoPartial (There are ports of unsquashfs and mksquashfs.)Partial (There are ports of unsquashfs and mksquashfs and fusefs-port.[88][89])NoNoNoNoNo
File systemDOSWindows 9xWindows NTLinux'classic' Mac OSmacOSFreeBSDOS/2BeOSMinixSolarisz/OS

See also[edit]


  1. ^IBM introduced JFS with the initial release of AIX Version 3.1 in 1990. This file system now called JFS1. The new JFS, on which the Linux port was based, was first shipped in OS/2 Warp Server for e-Business in 1999. The same sourcebase was also used for release JFS2 on AIX 5L.
  2. ^Microsoft first introduced FAT32 in MS-DOS 7.1 / Windows 95 OSR2 (OEM Service Release 2) and then later in Windows 98. NT-based Windows did not have any support for FAT32 up to Windows NT4; Windows 2000 was the first NT-based Windows OS that received the ability to work with it.
  3. ^ abcdeThese are the restrictions imposed by the on-disk directory entry structures themselves. Particular Installable File System drivers may place restrictions of their own on file and directory names; operating systems may also place restrictions of their own, across all filesystems. DOS, Windows, and OS/2 allow only the following characters from the current 8-bit OEM codepage in SFNs: A-Z, 0-9, characters ! # $ % & ' ( ) - @ ^ _ ` { } ~, as well as 0x80-0xFF and 0x20 (SPACE). Specifically, lowercase letters a-z, characters ' * / : < > ? + , . ; = [ ], control codes 0x00-0x1F, 0x7F and in some cases also 0xE5 are not allowed.) In LFNs, any UCS-2Unicode except / : ? * ' > < and NUL are allowed in file and directory names across all filesystems. Unix-like systems disallow the characters / and NUL in file and directory names across all filesystems.
  4. ^ abcdeFor filesystems that have variable allocation unit (block/cluster) sizes, a range of size are given, indicating the maximum volume sizes for the minimum and the maximum possible allocation unit sizes of the filesystem (e.g. 512 bytes and 128 KiB for FAT — which is the cluster size range allowed by the on-disk data structures, although some Installable File System drivers and operating systems do not support cluster sizes larger than 32 KiB).
  5. ^ abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyzaaabacadaeafagahaiajakIn these filesystems the directory entries named '.' and '.' have special status. Directory entries with these names are not prohibited, and indeed exist as normal directory entries in the on-disk data structures. However, they are mandatory directory entries, with mandatory values, that are automatically created in each directory when it is created; and directories without them are considered corrupt.
  6. ^ abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyzaaabacadaeafagahaiajakalamThe on-disk structures have no inherent limit. Particular Installable File System drivers and operating systems may impose limits of their own, however. Limited by its Current Directory Structure (CDS), DOS does not support more than 32 directory levels (except for DR DOS 3.31-6.0) or full pathnames longer than 66 bytes for FAT, or 255 characters for LFNs. Windows NT does not support full pathnames longer than 32,767 bytes for NTFS. Linux has a pathname limit of 4,096.
  7. ^The file size in the inode is 1 8-bit byte followed by 1 16-bit word, for 24 bits. The actual maximum was 8,847,360 bytes, with 7 singly-indirect blocks and 1 doubly-indirect block; PWB/UNIX 1.0's variant had 8 singly-indirect blocks, making the maximum 524,288 bytes or half a MiB.
  8. ^The actual maximum was 1,082,201,088 bytes, with 10 direct blocks, 1 singly-indirect block, 1 doubly-indirect block, and 1 triply-indirect block. The 4.0BSD and 4.1BSD versions, and the System V version, used 1,024-byte blocks rather than 512-byte blocks, making the maximum 4,311,812,608 bytes or approximately 4 GiB.
  9. ^ abcdefDepends on whether the FAT12, FAT16, and FAT32implementation has support for LFNs. Where it does not, as in OS/2, DOS, Windows 95, Windows 98 in DOS-only mode and the Linux 'msdos' driver, file names are limited to 8.3 format of 8-bit OEM characters (space padded in both the basename and extension parts) and may not contain NUL (end-of-directory marker) or character 5 (replacement for character 229 which itself is used as deleted-file marker). Short names also must not contain lowercase letters. A few special device names (CON, NUL, AUX, PRN, LPT1, COM1, etc.) should be avoided, as some operating systems (notably DOS, OS/2 and Windows) reserve them.
  10. ^ abOn-disk structures would support up to 4 GiB, but practical file size is limited by volume size.
  11. ^While FAT32 partitions this large work fine once created, some software won't allow creation of FAT32 partitions larger than 32 GiB. This includes, notoriously, the Windows XP installation program and the Disk Management console in Windows 2000, XP, 2003 and Vista. Use FDISK from a Windows ME Emergency Boot Disk to avoid.[9]
  12. ^The '.' and '.' directory entries in HPFS that are seen by applications programs are a partial fiction created by the Installable File System drivers. The on-disk data structure for a directory does not contain entries by those names, but instead contains a special 'start' entry. Whilst on-disk directory entries by those names are not physically prohibited, they cannot be created in normal operation, and a directory containing such entries is corrupt.
  13. ^This is the limit of the on-disk structures. The HPFS Installable File System driver for OS/2 uses the top 5 bits of the volume sector number for its own use, limiting the volume size that it can handle to 64 GiB.
  14. ^ abThis is the limit of the on-disk structures. The NTFS driver for Windows NT limits the volume size that it can handle to 256 TiB and the file size to 16 TiB respectively; in Windows 10 version 1709, the limit is 8 PiB when using 2 MiB cluster size.
  15. ^The 'classic' Mac OS provides two sets of functions to retrieve file names from an HFS Plus volume, one of them returning the full Unicode names, the other shortened names fitting in the older 31 byte limit to accommodate older applications.
  16. ^HFS Plus mandates support for an escape sequence to allow arbitrary Unicode. Users of older software might see the escape sequences instead of the desired characters.
  17. ^ abDepends on kernel version and arch. For 2.4 kernels the max is 2 TiB. For 32-bit 2.6 kernels it is 16 TiB. For 64-bit 2.6 kernels it is 8 EiB.
  18. ^ReiserFS has a theoretical maximum file size of 1 EiB, but 'page cache limits this to 8 Ti on architectures with 32 bit int'[24]
  19. ^Note that the filename can be much longer XFS#Extended attributes
  20. ^ abXFS has a limitation under Linux 2.4 of 64 TiB file size, but Linux 2.4 only supports a maximum block size of 2 TiB. This limitation is not present under IRIX.
  21. ^ abQFS allows files to exceed the size of disk when used with its integrated HSM, as only part of the file need reside on disk at any one time.
  22. ^Varies wildly according to block size and fragmentation of block allocation groups.
  23. ^ abNSS allows files to have multiple names, in separate namespaces.
  24. ^Some namespaces had lower name length limits. 'LONG' had an 80-byte limit, 'NWFS' 80 bytes, 'NFS' 40 bytes and 'DOS' imposed 8.3 filename.
  25. ^Maximum combined filename/filetype length is 236 bytes; each component has an individual maximum length of 255 bytes.
  26. ^Maximum pathname length is 4,096 bytes, but quoted limits on individual components add up to 1,664 bytes.
  27. ^This restriction might be lifted in newer versions.
  28. ^ abSparse files can be larger than the file system size, even though they can't contain more data.
  29. ^ abMaximum file size on a VMFS volume depends on the block size for that VMFS volume. The figures here are obtained by using the maximum block size.
  30. ^ISO 9660#Restrictions
  31. ^Through the use of multi-extents, a file can consist of multiple segments, each up to 4 GiB in size. See ISO 9660#The 2 GiB (or 4 GiB depending on implementation) file size limit
  32. ^Assuming the typical 2048 Byte sector size. The volume size is specified as a 32 bit value identifying the number of sectors on the volume.
  33. ^Implemented in later versions as an extension
  34. ^Some FAT implementations, such as in Linux, show file modification timestamp (mtime) in the metadata change timestamp (ctime) field. This timestamp is however, not updated on file metadata change.
  35. ^Particular Installable File System drivers and operating systems may not support extended attributes on FAT12 and FAT16. The OS/2 and Windows NT filesystem drivers for FAT12 and FAT16 support extended attributes (using a 'EA DATA. SF' pseudo-file to reserve the clusters allocated to them). Other filesystem drivers for other operating systems do not.
  36. ^The f-node contains a field for a user identifier. This is not used except by OS/2 Warp Server, however.
  37. ^NTFS access control lists can express any access policy possible using simple POSIX file permissions (and far more), but use of a POSIX-like interface is not supported without an add-on such as Services for UNIX or Cygwin.
  38. ^As of Vista, NTFS has support for Mandatory Labels, which are used to enforce Mandatory Integrity Control.[30]
  39. ^Initially, ReFS lacked support for ADS, but Server 2012 R2 and up add support for ADS on ReFS
  40. ^Data checksums not enabled by default
  41. ^ abcdAccess-control lists and MAC labels are layered on top of extended attributes.
  42. ^Some operating systems implemented extended attributes as a layer over UFS1 with a parallel backing file (e.g., FreeBSD 4.x).
  43. ^ abcdefghijklmnSome Installable File System drivers and operating systems may not support extended attributes, access control lists or security labels on these filesystems. Linux kernels prior to 2.6.x may either be missing support for these altogether or require a patch.
  44. ^ Journal and metadata only[31]
  45. ^Creation time stored since June 2015, xfsprogs version 3.2.3
  46. ^Metadata checksums stored since June 2015, xfsprogs version 3.2.3
  47. ^ abcdefThe local time, timezone/UTC offset, and date are derived from the time settings of the reference/single timesync source in the NDS tree.
  48. ^ abNovell calls this feature 'multiple data streams'. Published specifications say that NWFS allows for 16 attributes and 10 data streams, and NSS allows for unlimited quantities of both.
  49. ^ abSome file and directory metadata is stored on the NetWare server irrespective of whether Directory Services is installed or not, like date/time of creation, file size, purge status, etc; and some file and directory metadata is stored in NDS/eDirectory, like file/object permissions, ownership, etc.
  50. ^Record Management Services (RMS) attributes include record type and size, among many others.
  51. ^File permission in 9P are a variation of the traditional Unix permissions with some minor changes, e.g. the suid bit is replaced by a new 'exclusive access' bit.
  52. ^Supported on FreeBSD and Linux implementations, support may not be available on all operating systems.
  53. ^Solaris 'extended attributes' are really full-blown alternate data streams, in both the Solaris UFS and ZFS.
  54. ^ disabling copy-on-write (COW) to prevent fragmentation also disables checksumming
  55. ^Access times are preserved from the original file system at creation time, but Rock Ridge file systems themselves are read-only.
  56. ^libburnia can backup and restore ACLs with file system creation and extraction programs, but no kernel support exists.
  57. ^ ablibburnia can backup and restore extended attributes and MAC labels with file system creation and extraction programs, but no kernel support exists.
  58. ^System V Release 4, and some other Unix systems, retrofitted symbolic links to their versions of the Version 7 Unix file system, although the original version didn't support them.
  59. ^Context based symlinks were supported in GFS, GFS2 only supports standard symlinks since the bind mount feature of the Linux VFS has made context based symlinks obsolete
  60. ^Optional journaling of data
  61. ^As of Windows Vista, NTFS fully supports symbolic links.[32] NTFS 3.0 (Windows 2000) and higher can create junctions, which allow entire directories (but not individual files) to be mapped to elsewhere in the directory tree of the same partition (file system). These are implemented through reparse points, which allow the normal process of filename resolution to be extended in a flexible manner.
  62. ^ abNTFS stores everything, even the file data, as meta-data, so its log is closer to block journaling.
  63. ^ abWhile NTFS itself supports case sensitivity, the Win32 environment subsystem cannot create files whose names differ only by case for compatibility reasons. When a file is opened for writing, if there is any existing file whose name is a case-insensitive match for the new file, the existing file is truncated and opened for writing instead of a new file with a different name being created. Other subsystems like e. g. Services for Unix, that operate directly above the kernel and not on top of Win32 can have case-sensitivity.
  64. ^NTFS does not internally support snapshots, but in conjunction with the Volume Shadow Copy Service can maintain persistent block differential volume snapshots.
  65. ^Supported only on Windows Server SKUs. However, partitions deduplicated on Server can be used on Client.
  66. ^Metadata-only journaling was introduced in the Mac OS X 10.2.2 HFS Plus driver; journaling is enabled by default on Mac OS X 10.3 and later.
  67. ^Although often believed to be case sensitive, HFS Plus normally is not. The typical default installation is case-preserving only. From Mac OS X 10.3 on the command newfs_hfs -s will create a case-sensitive new file system.[35] HFS Plus version 5 optionally supports case-sensitivity. However, since case-sensitivity is fundamentally different from case-insensitivity, a new signature was required so existing HFS Plus utilities would not see case-sensitivity as a file system error that needed to be corrected. Since the new signature is 'HX', it is often believed this is a new filesystem instead of a simply an upgraded version of HFS Plus.[36][37]
  68. ^Mac OS X Tiger (10.4) and late versions of Panther (10.3) provide file change logging (it's a feature of the file system software, not of the volume format, actually).[38]
  69. ^HFS+ does not actually encrypt files: to implement FileVault, OS X creates an HFS+ filesystem in a sparse, encrypted disk image that is automatically mounted over the home directory when the user logs in.
  70. ^'Soft dependencies' (softdep) in NetBSD, called 'soft updates' in FreeBSD provide meta-data consistency at all times without double writes (journaling)
  71. ^Journaled Soft Updates (SU+J) are the default as of FreeBSD 9.x-RELEASE [40][41]
  72. ^ abcdeUDF, LFS, and NILFS are log-structured file systems and behave as if the entire file system were a journal.
  73. ^Linux kernel versions 2.6.12 and newer.
  74. ^ abcOff by default.
  75. ^Full block journaling for ReiserFS was added to Linux 2.6.8.
  76. ^ abReiser4 supports transparent compression and encryption with the cryptcompress plugin which is the default file handler in version 4.1.
  77. ^Optionally no on IRIX.
  78. ^Particular Installable File System drivers and operating systems may not support case sensitivity for JFS. OS/2 does not, and Linux has a mount option for disabling case sensitivity.
  79. ^ abcdCase-sensitivity/Preservation depends on client. Windows, DOS, and OS/2 clients don't see/keep case differences, whereas clients accessing via NFS or AFP may.
  80. ^ abThe file change logs, last entry change timestamps, and other filesystem metadata, are all part of the extensive suite of auditing capabilities built into NDS/eDirectory called NSure Audit.[45]
  81. ^ abAvailable only in the 'NFS' namespace.
  82. ^ abThese are referred to as 'aliases'.
  83. ^VxFS provides an optional feature called 'Storage Checkpoints' which allows for advanced file system snapshots.
  84. ^ abZFS is a transactional filesystem using copy-on-write semantics, guaranteeing an always-consistent on-disk state without the use of a traditional journal. However, it does also implement an intent log to provide better performance when synchronous writes are requested.
  85. ^Applies only to proprietary ZFS release and ZFS On Linux. Encryption support is not yet available in whole OpenZFS.[46][47]
  86. ^ abcSome file system creation implementations reuse block references and support deduplication this way. This is not supported by the standard, but usually works well due to the file system's read-only nature.
  87. ^ abVariable block size refers to systems which support different block sizes on a per-file basis. (This is similar to extents but a slightly different implementational choice.) The current implementation in UFS2 is read-only.
  88. ^ abSuperStor in DR DOS 6.0, PalmDOS 1.0, PC DOS 6.1 and 6.3, Stacker in Novell DOS 7, OpenDOS 7.01, DR-DOS 7.02 (and higher), and PC DOS 7.0 (and higher), DoubleSpace in MS-DOS 6.0 and 6.20, and DriveSpace in MS-DOS 6.22 and Windows 95, 98 and Me are disk compression schemes for FAT, but are not supported for other operating systems.
  89. ^Only for 'stuffed' inodes
  90. ^ abcdOther block:fragment size ratios supported; 8:1 is typical and recommended by most implementations.
  91. ^e2compr, a set of patches providing block-based compression for ext2, has been available since 1997, but has never been merged into the mainline Linux kernel.
  92. ^ abcFragments were planned, but never actually implemented on ext2 and ext3.
  93. ^ Stores one largest extent in disk, and caches multiple extents in DRAM dynamically.
  94. ^ abTail packing is technically a special case of block suballocation where the suballocation unit size is always 1 byte.
  95. ^In 'extents' mode.
  96. ^Each possible size (in sectors) of file tail has a corresponding suballocation block chain in which all the tails of that size are stored. The overhead of managing suballocation block chains is usually less than the amount of block overhead saved by being able to increase the block size but the process is less efficient if there is not much free disk space.
  97. ^Depends on UDF implementation.
  98. ^ abcLinux supports the zisofs extension that allows per-file compression, and file system creation tools may support creating such images. zisofs images are incompatible on non-Linux OSes.
  99. ^ abcISO 9660 Level 3 only
  100. ^Supported using only EVMS; not currently supported using LVM
  101. ^ abcdProvided in Plan 9 from User Space


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  29. ^See dinode structure on page 355 (FILESYS(5)) of 'Unix Programmers Manual'(PDF) (Seventh ed.). Murray Hill, New Jersey: Bell Telephone Laboratories. January 1979. Retrieved 2016-02-21.
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  32. ^Mark Russinovich (February 2007). 'Windows Administration: Inside the Windows Vista Kernel: Part 1'. TechNet.
  33. ^'About Data Deduplication'.
  34. ^Siracusa, John. 'Mac OS X 10.7 Lion: the Ars Technica review'. Ars Technica. Retrieved 14 December 2017. To keep track of hard links, HFS+ creates a separate file for each hard link inside a hidden directory at the root level of the volume.
  35. ^newfs_hfs(8) – Darwin and macOS System Manager's Manual
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  37. ^'Technical Note TN1150: HFS Plus Volume Format'. Apple. (Very technical overview of HFS Plus and HFSX.)
  38. ^fslogger
  39. ^https://www.mckusick.com/softdep/suj.pdf
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  41. ^https://www.freebsd.org/releases/9.0R/announce.html
  42. ^'Ext4 encryption'.
  43. ^'F2FS encryption'.
  44. ^'XFS, Reflinks and Deduplication'.
  45. ^Filesystem Events tracked by NSure
  46. ^'How to Manage ZFS Data Encryption'.
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  51. ^ abcdWith software based on GNU Parted
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  64. ^ ab'Mapping DOS FAT to MDFAT'.
  65. ^ ab'CVF Region: MDFAT'.
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  72. ^https://github.com/eafer/linux-apfs
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  74. ^'Porting an Ancient Filesystem to Modern Linux'. Time To Pull The Plug.
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  76. ^ abc'Paragon ExtFS for Windows'.
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  82. ^'Lustre Wiki'.
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  88. ^'squashfs-tools'. Freshports.
  89. ^'fusefs-squashfuse'. Freshports.
  • Linux kernel file systems via Wikia:en.howto:Wikihowto

External links[edit]

  • A speed comparison of filesystems on Linux 2.4.5 (archived)
  • Filesystems (ext3, reiser, xfs, jfs) comparison on Debian Etch (April 23, 2006)

Hierarchical File Systems

Hierarchical folder system
Retrieved from 'https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Comparison_of_file_systems&oldid=896966260'
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I agree. Maybe we need a hierarchical system that is dynamic. We need to organize information and in the real world we are constrained, but with computers we are not.

E.g if I need to organize my books, I could move it only to a given position, not another one, I could add labels to my books like 'history', or 'Initials of the author', but I could only group one way, like all my science papers on one place, if I want to group all the books that talk about sex, or crime, I will have to destroy the other group.

With computers you could create multiple directories trees with links instead of data, so I don't need to multiply the data each new tree. The tech is there(inodes).

Unix Hierarchical File System

Imagine if you study countries according to their population, so you create a hierarchy 'most populated', 'less populated', 'no populated at all', then inside most populated you have 'the most populated', 'the less populated', and so on.

Then you could have another directory according to the extension in squared kilometers. Another according to their capital coordinates, and so on.

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